The Changing World Order — Summary (7/10)

Sud Alogu
9 min readDec 8, 2023

Table of Contents


Ray Dalio’s book, “The Changing World Order,” talks about how big countries and empires have grown strong and then fallen over time. He looks closely at history, money, and government to see patterns in how these big powers rise and fall. Dalio knows a lot about global markets and uses this knowledge to explain what’s happening in the world today.

He believes that knowing history’s patterns helps us guess what will happen in the world in the future, especially with money and government. The book takes readers through history, showing what made these big powers successful and what made them fall apart.

However, Dalio’s way of thinking might be too simple. He focuses a lot on history repeating itself, which might make him miss out on new things happening today, like fast technology changes and how countries are all mixed up with each other. His ideas could make us think that what happened in the past will always happen again, ignoring new challenges and chances we have now.

Also, Dalio might pick historical events that only support his ideas and ignore those that don’t. This might make his conclusions too general and not fit our complex world.

Lastly, using Dalio’s ideas in today’s world might not be easy or always make sense. Learning from history is good, but our world has changed a lot, especially with new technologies changing how we live and work. Dalio’s ideas are useful for understanding history, but they might not fully explain what’s happening in our world today, where technology is really important.

With this in mind, let us proceed with this summary.

Dalio’s Background and Expertise

.Ray Dalio is a finance expert and founder of a big hedge fund. He knows a lot about market trends and how economic policies affect the world. He wrote a book called “Principles” about his ideas on life and work. His new book, “The Changing World Order,” uses these ideas to talk about big world issues.

In this book, Dalio doesn’t just look at money. He also thinks about culture, technology, and military stuff to explain why some countries get powerful and others don’t. This mix of different topics makes his book special for understanding global trends.

Dalio’s book is about how big countries and empires grow and then fall. He makes these ideas easy to understand for everyone, not just experts. He talks about how countries get strong because of good leaders, new technology, and growing economies. For example, he shows how the British Empire grew a lot because of the industrial revolution.

But he also explains how countries can lose their power. Things like spending too much, having financial problems, fighting within the country, and changes in the world can make a country weaker. Dalio uses examples like the fall of the Roman Empire and the British Empire to show how bad decisions and internal problems can make a powerful country less powerful.

Key Factors in the Rise and Decline of Powers

Ray Dalio points out some important things that affect how powerful countries are:

Economy: A country’s power is often based on its economy. Things like how much it produces, its trade, and how stable its finances are matter a lot.

Technology: Being ahead in technology can make a country really strong. Countries that have been leaders in new inventions have often been very powerful.

Military: Having a strong military, with good weapons and strategies, is key for a country to become powerful.

Good Leadership: It’s important for a country’s leaders to make smart decisions, keep things in order, and handle changes well to keep their country powerful.

Dalio looks at history to explain these points. He shows how these things work together and change over time, making countries more or less powerful. His book helps us understand not just the past but also what’s happening in the world now. He shows how power changes over time and gives ideas on what might happen in the future.

Economic and Political Cycles

Long-term Debt Cycles and Their Impact on World Economies

In “The Changing World Order,” Ray Dalio talks about long-term debt cycles and how they really affect countries’ economies. He says these cycles last about 50 to 75 years and have periods of growth, then a lot of debt, and finally, a time when the debt is reduced. These cycles are super important in how countries become powerful or lose power, as they change the economy, society, and politics.

Dalio explains that when times are good, countries borrow a lot and feel rich. But when they have too much debt and can’t handle it, they have to cut back, which can make the economy weaker and sometimes cause big problems like the Great Depression or the 2008 financial crisis. These debt cycles can really change who’s powerful in the world.

He also talks about political cycles. These are changes in how countries are run, their policies, and their leaders. Political cycles are affected by things like the economy, what people in society want, and relationships between countries. Hard times can cause big changes in politics, like new leaders or movements. Good times usually keep things the same. Dalio uses history to show how these political and economic cycles often happen together and affect a country’s power.

In his book, Dalio combines these ideas about economic and political cycles. He thinks it’s important to understand these cycles to guess what might happen in the world in the future. His book helps us see how money and politics together can change a country’s power.

The Concept of a Changing World Order

Dalio explores how the world’s power balance, economics, and politics are governed by big systems that change over time. He says these changes happen because of things like how economies grow or shrink, new technologies, big events in world politics, and wars. Dalio tries to find patterns in these changes to help us understand how these big world systems, or “world orders,” change and what signs show these changes are coming.

Dalio thinks one important sign of change is how strong countries’ economies are. For example, if a new, strong country starts to challenge an already powerful country, the world order can change. This happened when the British Empire became powerful after the Dutch Empire weakened and later when the United States became a superpower after World War II.

He also looks at how new technologies change who’s powerful. Countries that lead in new technologies often become more powerful economically and militarily. The British Empire grew strong during the Industrial Revolution, and the United States gained power with the digital revolution.

Dalio also talks about how really new technologies, like artificial intelligence and renewable energy, might change which countries are powerful in the future. And he looks at how big changes in world politics, like new alliances or conflicts, can shift power. He mentions how China is becoming more influential and could challenge the current world order, which is mostly led by the United States.

Case Studies: Historical Examples and Lessons

Dalio uses real examples from history to show how big countries become powerful and then lose power. He looks at different times in history and examines how money, politics, and military actions have affected big countries.

A key example Dalio uses is the British Empire. He explains how it became really powerful because of new industrial technologies, taking over other countries, and having a strong navy. But he also talks about why the British Empire lost power, like spending too much on wars and facing competition from countries like the United States and Germany.

Dalio also talks about how the United States became super powerful after World War II. He points out how the U.S. had a strong economy, led in technology, and made lots of international friends. He also mentions the Bretton Woods system and how the U.S. dollar became really important worldwide.

Dalio uses these stories from the past to help us understand what’s happening in the world now and what might happen in the future. He says the rise and fall of powerful countries happen in cycles. For example, just like the British Empire had problems and faced new powerful countries, the United States today is facing similar challenges with the rise of China and other issues.

These examples help Dalio show that no country stays on top forever. By looking at what happened before, he thinks we can guess and get ready for what might happen next in the world.

Current Global Trends

Dalio looks at today’s economic and political situations using what he’s learned from history about how big countries rise and fall. He spots some important trends that are changing the world right now.

One big thing Dalio talks about is how China is becoming really strong economically and is starting to challenge the United States, which has been the most powerful country for a while. He talks about how fast China’s economy is growing, how it’s becoming more important in global trade, and its efforts to be a big player in world affairs. Dalio compares this to times in the past when new powerful countries started to challenge the ones that were in charge.

Dalio also points out that many big countries, including the U.S., have a lot of debt and financial problems. He says these money issues, along with fighting within countries and problems in society, are similar to what’s happened before when powerful countries started to lose their power. He warns that if these problems aren’t fixed, they could really change who’s in charge in the world.

Dalio thinks these changes will affect big countries and the whole world’s economy. He says that the world is becoming a place where more countries have power (a “multipolar world”). This could change how countries trade with each other, invest money, and work together. Dalio also thinks there could be more ups and downs in the economy and politics because of these changes. He talks about how changes in things like how countries handle their money and their relationships could affect global markets.

Dalio’s main point is that by understanding history, we can better understand what’s happening now and what might happen in the future. He says it’s important to know about these cycles to handle today’s complicated world and make smart choices for the future.

Predictions for the Future

Ray Dalio makes predictions about the future in “The Changing World Order” based on past trends and what’s happening now. He thinks knowing about how powerful countries have risen and fallen in the past helps us guess what might happen next. His predictions are based on things like the economy, big changes in world politics, and what’s happening in societies.

Dalio’s big prediction is that the world’s economy is changing. He says that China and Asia are becoming more powerful and could challenge the United States and Europe. This isn’t just about how much money they make (GDP) but also their technology, military, and influence in the world. He thinks this could lead to a world where power is shared between several important countries, not just one superpower.

He also thinks there might be more fights, both inside countries and between them. Dalio points out that when there are big differences in wealth and income and when people and groups disagree a lot, it can cause problems. He says these issues, along with challenges from other countries, could make the world less stable and change how countries get along.

Dalio imagines different things that could happen with the world’s economy and politics. He thinks countries and companies might have a hard time because of too much debt and changes in jobs due to new technology. They’ll need to adjust to these changes to stay strong and successful.

In politics, Dalio thinks there might be new leaders and friends in the world. He says it’s important to understand how China is getting stronger, not just with money but also how it runs its country and works with others. He also thinks new technologies and digital money could really change the economy and politics.

Dalio’s predictions show that it’s important to be ready for change, know a lot, and make smart plans. He tells people and leaders to learn from history and what’s happening now to make good choices for the future.

Conclusion: Understanding Historical Cycles for Future Planning

In “The Changing World Order,” Ray Dalio gives a detailed look at how big countries become powerful and then lose power. He talks about money, politics, and society to show how the world changes. Here’s what Dalio says:

World Powers Go in Cycles: Dalio shows that powerful countries come and go in cycles. This happens because of their economy, new technologies, military strength, and how well they’re run.

Economic and Political Cycles: Big cycles of debt and changes in politics are important in deciding which countries are strong or weak. Knowing these cycles helps guess what will happen in the world.

World is Changing: Dalio points out that the world is moving to a time where power is shared among several countries, like China, instead of just one or two.

Predictions for the Future: He uses what he knows about the past to guess what might happen next, like which countries will be powerful, possible fights inside and between countries, and how new technology will change things.

Dalio’s work is really useful for people who make big decisions, like governments and companies. He shows why it’s important to know about these cycles in history to handle today’s complicated world and plan for the future. This helps them make plans that can handle changes in the economy, politics, and society.

“The Changing World Order” teaches us that while history doesn’t repeat itself exactly, we can learn a lot from it to understand what’s happening now and what might happen later. It’s a great book for anyone interested in the world’s economy, how countries work together, and how history affects today and tomorrow.